Lathe Cutting Tools - Cutting Tool Shapes

There are many high speed steel cutting tools used for turning operations. Most of the cutting tool used in industry employ some type of carbide as a base material. It is when we need odd or different shape cutting tools that you will see high speed steel single-point cutting tools being ground in industry. Regardless of the shape of the single-point cutting tool, it must have the correct relief and rake angles to cut correctly. This lesson deals mainly with the different shapes of high speed steel single-point cutting tools. The relief and rake angles are covered in another unit. Some typical shapes of single-point cutting tools are shown in the up-coming figures. Study their shapes and uses.
The tool in Figure A is used to turn to a semi-square shoulder. This tool, because of the square side cutting edge angle, directs the cutting force straight back, opposite the cutting direction. It can be used for roughing if there is sufficient material behind the cutting edge.

Figure A

The tool in Figure B is a standard turning tool with a lead angle. The lead angle allows for heavy roughing cuts. You can also turn the tool to accomplish a semi-square shoulder.

Figure B

The turning tool in Figure C has a very large nose radius. The large nose radius will allow for fine finishes on either light or heavy cuts. This tool can also be used with varying radii to form a corner radius.

Figure C

Figure D

The tool at Figure D has the nose leading the side cutting edge. In this position, the tool is set to take light finishing cuts on the diameter and the face of the shoulder.
The tool in Figure E is a form tool. The form that is ground into the tool is reproduced on the part.

Figure E

The tool at Figure F is a facing tool. The tool can be used to face the end of the workpiece held by a half-center. A half center is a solid tailstock center that has half of the tip ground away for tool clearance.

Figure F

Figure G

The tool in Figure G is called an under-cutting or grooving tool. It is used to cut grooves as shown in the figure. With the proper clearances, the tool can plunge, or cut to left or to the right.
The tool in Figure H is a cut-off or parting tool. This tool is used to cut off stock to finished length while the part is being held in a chuck. This parting tool employs a preformed blade and holder.

Figure H

The tool in Figure I is a 60-degree threading tool. The threading tool is another type of form tool.

Figure I