1. Generally speaking, this knowledge evolves in the local environment, so that it is specifically adapted to the requirements of local people and conditions.
2. True or False: It is usually a mistake to think of indigenous knowledge as ‘old-fashioned,’ ‘backwards,’ ‘static’ or ‘unchanging.’
3. Indigenous knowledge systems are the complex arrays of knowledge, know-how, practices and representations that guide _______________________ in their innumerable interactions with the natural milieu: agriculture and animal husbandry; hunting, fishing and gathering; struggles against disease and injury; naming and explaining natural phenomena; and strategies for coping with changing environments.
4. It is through this fine-grained interplay between _____________________________ that indigenous knowledge systems have developed diverse structures and content; complexity, versatility and pragmatism; and distinctive patterns of interpretation anchored in specific worldviews.
5. True or False: Indigenous knowledge includes not only knowledge but also know-how. Transmission is not only oral, but also in the context of doing.
6. Hunters have detailed knowledge of the habitat, behavior, diet and migration patterns of their prey. Farmers know how crops should be rotated to maintain soil fertility and which plant products have insecticidal or medicinal properties. This ________________________, however, blends imperceptibly into the metaphysical realm.
7. The continued flow of water for the farmers’ field is attributed as much to their respect for the deity of the sacred headwater forests, as to the water-drawing properties of the trees themselves. ____________________________ co-exist side by side, complementing and enriching rather than competing and contradicting.
8. Each of these indigenous groups has its own history of contact with the dominant Filipino society and this has placed each group somewhere on a spectrum from “isolation” to _____________________
9. These have caused changes in the economic systems of indigenous peoples. The consequences for the communities involved are varied, and it seems that efficient accommodation of elements from the new system is often facilitated by innovative social organization that ensures control of the land by the indigenous community.
10. After independence, the Philippine Government established a greater presence in the formerly remote areas of indigenous occupation. This required that
communities of indigenous peoples elect village captains, mayors, and national leaders. All of these created changes in the _______________________ of the hitherto isolated communities.
11. True or False: Indigenous peoples should be regarded as those with a social or cultural identity distinct from the dominant or mainstream society, which makes them vulnerable to being disadvantaged in the processes of development.
12. In some cases, over recent centuries, tribal groups or cultural minorities have _______________ into areas to which they are not indigenous, but have established a presence and continue to maintain a definite and separate social and cultural identity and related social institutions.
13. The concept is inextricably related to group membership, identity, and history. The thread that weaves these factors together is the indigenous peoples’ attachment to land and territory.
14. True or False: Despite efforts to define indigenous peoples, there is still no consensus as to exactly who are the indigenous peoples in the Philippines. This is due to the absence of up-to-date cultural mapping in this country. Another reason is the tenuous way in which indigenous peoples’ identities have been constructed
by themselves and others (for political, religious, and other reasons).
16. The native inhabitants of the Cordillera are indigenous peoples who have occupied and sustained their territories since time immemorial. They have maintained their ____________, distinct _________________, and ____________________ systems.