Learners examine how five or six groups of electrons around a central atom cause the shape of the molecule to be trigonal bipyramidal, seesaw, T-shaped, linear, octahedral, square pyramidal, or square planar. Seven examples and three interactive questions are provided in this animated activity.
In this animated and interactive object, learners observe how two, three, or four groups of electrons around the central atom cause the shape of the molecule to be linear, trigonal planar, bent, tetrahedral, or pyramidal. Seven examples and eight interactive questions are provided.
In this interactive and animated object, students distribute the valence electrons in simple covalent molecules with one central atom. Six rules are followed to show the bonding and nonbonding electrons in Lewis dot structures. The process is well illustrated with eight worked examples and two interactive practice problems.
Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by molecules in the gas phase in equilibrium with a liquid or a solid. Two examples are used to illustrate vapor pressure: the drying of clothes and the evaporation of ice.
This screencast shows how blood droplets are held together by a strong cohesive molecular force that produces surface tension in each drop and on the external force. Surface tension pulls the surface molecules of a liquid toward its interior, decreasing the surface area and causing the liquid to resist penetration.