In this animated object, learners examine the signals produced at the N.O. (normally open) and N.C. (normally closed) outputs of sourcing and sinking four-wire sensors. A brief quiz completes the activity.
Op Amp Fundamentals: The Transconductance Amplifier
Students read an introduction to the transconductance amplifier. They also view formulas for voltage-to-current conversion, closed-loop input, and output impedance. An example of how R1 controls the conversion factor is given.