In this learning object the student will learn how to measure a stain and calculate angles of impact. Determining the angle of impact for bloodstains takes advantage of the trigonometric functions (Sine function).
A mathematical relationship exists between the width and length of an elliptical bloodstain which allows for the calculation of the angle of the impact for the original spherical drop of blood.
Given well formed stains we can accurately measure the width and length by simply dividing the stain along it’s major and minor axis. The opposite halves would be generally equal to each other which aids in establishing the impact angle.
This screencast, we see how the shape of a stain defines the angle of impact. In general terms the more circular the stain, the more perpendicular will be the angle at which it struck the surface. The more elliptical the shape of the stain, the more acute the angle will be. With practice and experience, the analyst can recognize the general angle of impact based solely on the shape of the stain.
This screencast shows how blood droplets are held together by a strong cohesive molecular force that produces surface tension in each drop and on the external force. Surface tension pulls the surface molecules of a liquid toward its interior, decreasing the surface area and causing the liquid to resist penetration.
In this screencast, the student will learn that regardless of the surface onto which a blood droplet is falling, the angle or velocity at which it does so, or the volume of the droplet, there are four distinct phases involved in the reaction of a moving droplet with impact against a surface.